How to Handle a Temper Tantrum

You’re standing in the snack aisle of the supermarket. Lying at your feet is your toddler, who has just been informed (by you) that, no, they cannot have the Cinderella fruit snacks. Their face has turned a shade somewhere between red and purple. Their fists are pounding the floor in fury as they emit a shriek that can be heard in the farthest reaches of the parking lot. The other shoppers are gaping at this spectacle as you wish desperately for a hole to open in the floor and swallow you up.

Many a parent has been through a scenario like this, although the tantrum might have taken a slightly different form; crying, hitting, kicking, stomping, throwing things, and breath holding are all popular tantrum techniques.

Temper tantrums are exceedingly common in children, especially between ages 1 and 4 — the early part of which is sometimes called the “terrible 2s” — when kids are still learning how to communicate effectively. More than half of young children will have one or more tantrums a week as they vent their frustrations and protest their lack of control.

Although they are a normal part of the toddler repertoire, temper tantrums can be distressing to parents. When they occur infrequently, tantrums aren’t a big deal and are best ignored. It’s when they become regular or intense that parents need to look into what’s causing them and find ways to stop them.

Tantrum Triggers
Some children are more prone to tantrums, particularly kids who are intense, hyperactive, or moody, or kids who don’t adapt well to new environments. For most toddlers, tantrums are simply a way of getting out their frustration and testing limits (Will mommy buy me that toy if I scream really loud?).

The smallest things, from asking them to take a bath while they’re in the middle of watching Sesame Street to requesting that they share a favorite stuffed animal with a younger sibling, can set off young children. Any situation that involves change may spawn a tantrum. Add fatigue or hunger to the equation and children, their threshold for tolerance even lower, are even more likely to throw a tantrum.

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The Power of Play: How Time Outside Helps Kids

For millennia, parents have told their rowdy kids to “Go out and play!” In doing so, most hadn’t a clue they were nurturing the emotional, cognitive, language, and self-regulation skills that build executive function and social aptitude in children, all while enhancing critical brain structures that support pursuing goals and ignoring distractions.

In other words, play is needed for healthy development. So says a recent report published in the journal Pediatrics, which outlines how play advances such skills even as it manages toxic stress. What’s more, playing is shown to support the formation of stable and nurturing relationships with caregivers that kids need to thrive.

While the definition of play is not clear-cut, the researchers agree that play is naturally motivated, uses active engagement, and results in joyful discovery. It’s also voluntary, fun, and spontaneous, with no extrinsic goals.

There are different types of play, says Eileen Kennedy-Moore, PhD, a child psychologist and the author of Growing Friendships: A Kids’ Guide to Making and Keeping Friends. “Some play is child-directed; it’s about exploring,” she says. “A toddler puts everything in her mouth — she’s curious about the world. Physical play is rough-and-tumble, with kids running and moving their bodies. Social play may involve a child watching another kid, playing alongside him, which becomes cooperative play with shared goals as they interact. Pretend play is when children take on adult roles. Interestingly, this happens cross-culturally at specific developmental times, primarily during the preschool years.”

Free play enables children to understand their own preferences and interests, the report states. But play guided by an adult, where the child does her own actions, better promotes learning with a specific goal in mind.
Kennedy-Moore agrees: “Adult-guided play is not about an adult lecturing, but rather modeling for children by asking questions. For example, if a parent and a child are doing a puzzle, the adult might say, ‘I notice the color yellow is running through here. Do you see a yellow piece?’ Asking questions instead of giving the answers.” This allows a child to figure it out — and succeed — independently.

Play and stress are closely linked, with high levels of play associated with low levels of cortisol. Play may be especially important for children in high-stress family situations, the report says.

4 Game Changers
Use these play tips from Kennedy-Moore in your kids’ downtime to boost social, emotional, and mental development.

Ditch the device. There’s no “right” number of hours for kids to play — but do monitor screen time, Kennedy-Moore says: “Playing a video game virtually with a friend is not the same as a game of tag, where kids negotiate the rules, cooperate, and compete to catch each other.”

Solo play is good — to a point. “Alone play can be wonderful, and it builds imagination,” Kennedy-Moore says. “For instance, kids love playing alone with Legos.” But if your child always plays solo, it can be a red flag for social isolation.

Embrace unstructured play time. “Kids say, ‘I’m bored!’ and parents leap to the rescue,” Kennedy-Moore says. “If they can resist, the child moans and groans — and, then, something wonderful happens: Kids think of something to do. It’s a life skill to follow their own curiosity, entertain themselves, and manage their emotions.”

The play’s the thing. “Play is important and valuable, in and of itself,” Kennedy-Moore says, “even if it doesn’t always encourage development every time. Play is like art — to be appreciated.”

Allergic Reactions Spur Alerts Over Pfizer Vaccine

Health authorities in the United Kingdom say people with a history of allergic reactions should delay taking the new Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine after two people had reactions following the rollout of the national vaccination program.

The U.K.’s Medical and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) doesn’t know yet if the vaccine caused the reactions, The Guardian reported. The two people are National Health Service employees with a history of allergies. Their identities and the nature of their reactions have not been revealed.

“As is common with new vaccines, the MHRA have advised on a precautionary basis that people with a significant history of allergic reactions do not receive this vaccination after two people with a history of significant allergic reactions responded adversely yesterday,” Stephen Powis, medical director for the NHS in England, said in a statement. “Both are recovering well.”

The world is watching how the U.K. administers its vaccine program, the first in the world to vaccinate the public with the Pfizer vaccine outside clinical trials.

U.K. health care regulators approved the Pfizer vaccine on Dec. 2 and began giving vaccinations on Tuesday — only 6 days later. The first people to be vaccinated were health care workers and people over 80.

In the United States, an FDA committee is expected to consider the Pfizer vaccine on Thursday. If approved, vaccinations could begin in the U.S. within days.

The Associated Press reported that MHRA Chief Executive June Raine told a Parliamentary committee about the allergic reactions during previously scheduled testimony on the pandemic.

“We know from the very extensive clinical trials that this wasn’t a feature” of the vaccine, she said. “But if we need to strengthen our advice, now that we have had this experience in the vulnerable populations, the groups who have been selected as a priority, we get that advice to the field immediately.”

Managing diabetes after incarceration: A difficult journey

For the average adult, a diabetes diagnosis is life-changing. Managing diabetes involves a daily routine that shifts toward remembering to take medication, check blood sugar, and monitor carbohydrate intake.

Frequent trips to multiple doctors’ offices become the norm, as regular foot checks, dental appointments, eye exams, and primary care visits are crucial for avoiding the complications of poorly managed disease.

These complications can include gum disease, cardiovascular problems, nerve damage, kidney failure, blindness, and even amputation. Individuals who receive an early diagnosis and manage the disease well can expect to live as long as those without diabetes, but research has linked poor disease management to reduced life expectancy of up to 8 years.

For someone reentering society after being in prison, managing diabetes can be quite difficult. In the United States, more than 2 million people are incarcerated in jails and prisons on a given day, and nearly 5% of them have diabetes.

These individuals typically do not serve life sentences; rather, 95% eventually return to community settings that may not readily embrace them or their medical needs.

For example, taking medication every day requires having a safe place to live and store medications. This is not a given for formerly incarcerated people, many of whom often struggle simply to find a place to live.

In the U.S., individuals who have been inmates in jails or prisons just once are seven times more likely to experience homelessness than the general population. Meanwhile, those who have been incarcerated two or more times are 13 times more likely than other people to lack housing.

Individuals with a criminal history face numerous collateral consequences of conviction — legal restrictions that disqualify them from accessing a range of resources and opportunities upon release.

Unemployment is a major concern for people with a criminal history. According to the Prison Policy Initiative, individuals with a criminal history are nearly five times more likely to be unemployed than the general population.

Many employment sectors bar those with a criminal history, limiting their ability to earn the money necessary to afford adequate housing. Those who turn to low-income housing programs often face being denied access, as many public housing programs have strict eligibility criteria that exclude individuals with a criminal history.

This is true even for older adults. Many low-income senior housing assistance programs deny access to individuals with recent criminal convictions and permanently ban those with a history of criminal sexual conduct, even if the crime occurred decades earlier.

Additionally, food insecurity complicates diabetes management for formerly incarcerated adults. Access to adequate quantities of nutritious food is crucial for effective diabetes management.

A diabetes-friendly diet restricts carbohydrate intake, as carbohydrate-rich foods often raise blood glucose levels higher and faster than foods rich in protein and fiber.

Formerly incarcerated individuals, however, often report great difficulty in accessing healthful foods. Estimates of food insecurity among formerly incarcerated individuals returning to community settings are as high as 91%.

Among the many collateral consequences of criminal conviction in the U.S. are limitations on the receipt of federal supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits (i.e., SNAP or food stamps) for individuals convicted of certain criminal offenses.

While most states have eliminated lifetime bans on food assistance, more than 30 states still place some restrictions on food assistance for individuals with felony drug convictions.

Faced with an inability to afford nutritious foods, food-insecure individuals often turn to cheap, high calorie foods, which can lead to weight gain, poor blood glucose control, and an increased risk of diabetes-related health complications.

Likewise, poor healthcare access and utilization negatively affect diabetes management among formerly incarcerated adults. Access to affordable health insurance is crucial for disease management, as the self-management of diabetes requires visits to primary care doctors and specialists; the ongoing use of medication, such as insulin and oral medications; and daily use of testing supplies, including glucose test strips and glucose meters.

Uninsured adults with diabetes engage in fewer preventive healthcare activities than their insured counterparts, including less daily blood glucose monitoring, reduced participation in diabetes education classes, and fewer foot and eye exams.

Historically, a lack of health insurance has been a significant barrier to healthcare access for formerly incarcerated individuals. Given the difficulties of finding employment after incarceration, employer-based health insurance is typically not an option.

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Traditionally, Medicaid coverage has been limited to pregnant women, parents with a low income, and those under the age of 65 with disabilities. Notably, this does not include men (who make up about 93% of the U.S. state and federal prison population), unless they care for minor children or have disabilities.

At the end of their sentence, individuals with diabetes may have trouble obtaining health insurance, depending on where they live. Since the Affordable Care Act of 2010, 39 U.S. states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid to include all adults with a low income, regardless of gender, disability, or parenting status.

Given the barriers that formerly incarcerated individuals face, ensuring adequate diabetes management in this population will require a host of system-level changes. Providing widespread access to health insurance for individuals with diabetes and a low income is crucial.

Without it, formerly incarcerated adults with diabetes will forego necessary medical care simply because they cannot afford it. This lack of treatment will only increase their risk of adverse disease-related complications.

The benefits of Medicaid expansion have been well-documented — if all remaining states fully implemented Medicaid expansion, nearly 4 million people would gain health insurance, decreasing the number of uninsured adults by 28%. The remaining states must be encouraged to expand their Medicaid programs to provide greater access to healthcare coverage in this population.

Additionally, there must be increased policy advocacy surrounding the health-related collateral consequences of criminal conviction. As they reenter community settings, individuals with a criminal history face countless barriers that adversely affect their ability to manage diabetes or any other chronic health condition effectively.

Most criminal justice advocacy work examines the impact of collateral consequences on economic security. However, policies that restrict employment, housing, and access to healthful food for those with criminal records also ultimately endanger population health.

Chronic disease management and population health must be a part of the conversation when advocating for criminal justice reform.

As the U.S. population ages, and chronic health conditions become more prominent, failure to integrate these issues into larger criminal justice policy discussions will just add to the difficulties that formerly incarcerated adults must deal with as they attempt to reintegrate into society.

How do COVID-19 vaccines compare with other existing vaccines?

The novelty of the COVID-19 vaccines may seem daunting for some, and it is natural for questions to arise on their effectiveness. In this feature, we examine the difference between effectiveness and efficacy, compare the COVID-19 frontrunner vaccines to other vaccines, such as the flu shot, and compare their safety considerations.
As Pfizer/BioNTech roll out their COVID-19 vaccine throughout the United Kingdom and the United States, the world wonders how effective it will be.

Looking at the three leading vaccines that we have previously reported on, Pfizer/BioNTech boasts 95% efficacy, the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine candidate has an average of 70% efficacy, while the Moderna vaccine candidate reportedly has 94.1% efficacy.

But what does this say about their effectiveness? And how does it compare with vaccines against the flu, polio, and measles?

Effectiveness vs. efficacy — what is the difference?
Firstly, it is worth noting that “effectiveness” and “efficacy” are not the same. Despite news outlets frequently using them interchangeably, efficacy refers to how a vaccine performs under ideal lab conditions, such as those in a clinical trial. In contrast, effectiveness refers to how it performs in the real world.

In other words, in a clinical trial, a 90% efficacy means that there are 90% fewer cases of disease in the group receiving the vaccine compared with the placebo group.

However, the participants chosen for a clinical trial tend to be healthier and younger than those in the general population, and they generally have no underlying conditions. Furthermore, researchers do not normally include certain groups in these studies, such as children or pregnant people.

So, while a vaccine can prevent disease in a trial, we might see this effectiveness drop when administered to the wider population.

However, that is not in itself a bad thing.

Flu shot effectiveness
Vaccines do not need to have high effectiveness to save thousands of lives and prevent millions of disease cases.

The popular flu shot, for example, has an effectiveness of 40­–60%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

However, during 2018­–2019, it prevented around “4.4 million influenza illnesses, 2.3 million influenza-associated medical visits, 58,000 influenza-associated hospitalizations, and 3,500 influenza-associated deaths.”

It is also worth noting that the flu vaccine’s effectiveness varies from season to season, due to the nature of the flu viruses circulating that year. Determining the precise rate of effectiveness can be challenging.

Finally, it bears mentioning that the number of doses can also improve effectiveness for some vaccines. For the flu shot, two doses of the vaccine instead of one can offer a protection boost, but this benefit is limited to only a few specific groups, such as children or organ transplant recipients.

The booster dose does not seem to benefit people over the age of 65 or those with a compromised immune system.

By contrast, as we will see below, for vaccines, such as the ones against polio and measles, a higher number of doses is required to achieve peak effectiveness.

6 Reasons to Eat More Mushrooms

Mushrooms are a great example of “don’t judge a book by its cover.” Yes, they’re a fungi. And sure, some varieties look like something out of a Dr. Seuss story. But mushrooms deserve to be tossed into your shopping cart and added to meals a lot more often (not just ordered on pizza, though that’s yummy too!). Here are six reasons why:

1. They’re provide vitamin D: Mushrooms are the only produce item that delivers vitamin D, a nutrient that’s not easy to come by in many commonly eaten foods. That’s because mushrooms can make vitamin D when exposed to UV light. For instance, one portabella mushroom treated with UV light contains more than 100% of the Daily Value for vitamin D. Check the Nutrition Facts Panel for vitamin D content on portabella, white button, and brown cremini mushrooms (“baby bellas”). These varieties are more likely to be treated.

2. They taste meaty: The flavor of mushrooms has been described as “umami,” a Japanese word meaning “pleasant savory taste,” that’s referred to as the fifth taste sense. Portabella (and cremini) mushrooms have a meatier flavor, though the milder flavor of white button deepens with cooking. Portabella mushrooms also have a meaty texture, which is why you’ll see them grilled whole or served on buns in place of meat burgers.

3. They’re high in selenium: Mushrooms are one of the richest sources of selenium in the produce aisle. That’s a mineral that works like an antioxidant in your body, guarding cells against the kind of damage that can lead to disease. Selenium also plays a role in the immune system.

4. They vanish into ground meat: With their meaty taste and texture and ability to disappear into ground meat, they’re the perfect way to cut back on the amount of ground beef (or ground pork, chicken, or turkey) you use in recipes. With this trick, you’ll also reduce the number of calories and fat in your recipe too. (Here’s my recipe for Freezer-Friendly Beef Burritos that stretches ground beef with white button mushrooms.)

Keep in mind these ratio recommendations while you’re cooking:

Burgers and meatloaf: Use 25% mushrooms to 75% ground meat
Tacos: Use 50% each mushrooms and ground meat
Pasta sauces: Use 70% mushrooms to 30% ground meat
5. They may help with weight loss: Mushrooms are extremely low in calories. There are only about 20 calories in a serving of five white button mushrooms or one whole portabella mushroom! Yet mushrooms are also satisfying. In one study published in the journal Appetite, people who swapped mushrooms for meat at lunch reduced the amount of calories and fat they took in, but they reported feeling just as full and satisfied as those who ate meat.

6. They’re a sustainable crop: Mushrooms are grown in trays indoors and don’t require sunlight, farmland, or very much water. When you eat them in place of meat — or blend them so you’re eating less meat — you’re also lowering the overall carbon footprint of your meals.

What Should I Eat Before Working Out?

If you’re eating a healthy diet and getting enough calories throughout the day to support your activities, you may not need to nosh before your workout. But if it helps keep your energy level up, snacking can be a good move.

Choosing the right foods helps. And make sure you’re well hydrated before working out. Experts recommend drinking 16-20 ounces of water 1-2 hours before starting your workout.

9 Pre workout Snacks to Try
Experts agree your best bet is a low-fat snack, about 100 to 300 calories, that gives you a mix of protein and complex carbohydrates.

The carbs give you fuel. The protein is for your muscles.

Try these tasty ideas:

  • Oatmeal with cinnamon and blueberries or dried cranberries
  • Whole wheat toast topped with nut butter and sliced bananas
  • Fruit smoothie with yogurt
  • Greek yogurt with low-fat granola and berries
  • Half of a turkey sandwich
  • Raw veggies with hummus for dipping
  • Whole-grain crackers with 1 ounce of low-fat cheese
  • Cottage cheese and sliced apples or bananas
  • Trail mix with nuts and dried fruit
  • What Not to Eat Before Exercise
  • Avoid foods that are high in fat or fiber — both of which can upset your stomach, take longer to deliver energy, and leave you feeling sluggish. Also avoid spicy or unfamiliar foods.

How to Start Strength Training

Why Strength Training?
It’s not just to get big muscles and look buff. Your bones will get stronger, too. And it can help your balance and coordination, which means you’re less likely to fall and hurt yourself. More muscle also means you burn more calories when you’re doing nothing at all, which can help keep off extra pounds. You’ll appreciate these benefits as you get older and start to lose muscle mass.

Do You Need Lots of Equipment?
Not at all. Pushups, pullups, and other “body weight exercises” can help build up your muscles and make it easier for you to work out longer. Simple props like elastic resistance tubing and giant inflatable balls can help with some movements. And don’t be afraid to switch it up. More variety may help you get stronger.

Free Weights
“Free” doesn’t have to do with money. It means the weights aren’t attached to a machine. If you’d rather train at home, start small with a couple of hand dumbbells. You can always add weight or take it away. A larger barbell and weight bench put variety in your routine.

Be careful, though. It’s easier to injure yourself with free weights than weight machines, so make sure you learn how to use them the right way.

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Can Gluten-Free Foods Fuel Your Kids?

When it comes to food trends, “gluten-free” (GF) is at the top of the heap. Some people claim that the meal plan has helped them lose weight, have more energy, and just feel better. But is it better fuel for your kids?

Unless your child has a specific medical reason to avoid gluten, there’s little proof that a GF meal plan is better than the healthy, balanced foods that all kids need. Before you start planning GF meals, it’s important to understand the basics of this approach to eating.

What It Means to Go Gluten-Free
Gluten is a protein found in some grains. If your child goes on a GF diet, they’ll avoid all food and drinks that have:

Triticale (a cross between wheat and barley)
Instead, they’ll focus on foods that are naturally gluten-free. These include fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, beans, legumes, and most dairy products.

Some grains and starches are OK on a gluten-free diet, like:
Corn and cornmeal
Special GF flours are also made from many of these grains.

Is a Gluten-Free Diet a Healthy Choice for Kids?
The only people who need to stick to a gluten-free diet are those with celiac disease, a condition in which gluten can damage the small intestine. Kids who are allergic to gluten, like those who have a wheat allergy, should avoid it, too.

For everyone else, gluten is not unhealthy. Avoiding it won’t make your kids “feel better” or have more energy. In fact, trying to cut it out of your child’s diet may make it harder for him to get enough key nutrients, like iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B, and folate. Plus, since so many grains are off-limits, a GF diet can mean he’ll have a tough time getting enough fiber.

It’s still the overall quality of the foods your child eats that makes the biggest difference in how he feels. Focus on helping him choose a variety of whole, healthy foods and cutting out processed ones. (Packages of gluten-free cookies or potato chips aren’t any healthier than the regular kinds.)

Artificial pancreas effectively controls type 1 diabetes in children age 6 and up

A clinical trial at four pediatric diabetes centers in the United States has found that a new artificial pancreas system — which automatically monitors and regulates blood glucose levels — is safe and effective at managing blood glucose levels in children as young as age six with type 1 diabetes. The trial was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. Results from the trial were published August 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

“Fewer than 1 in 5 children with type 1 diabetes are able to successfully keep their blood glucose in a healthy range with current treatment, which may have serious consequences on their long-term health and quality of life,” said Guillermo Arreaza-Rubín, M.D., director of NIDDK’s Diabetes Technology Program and project scientist for the study. “Earlier research showed that the system tested in this study was safe and effective for people ages 14 and older. This trial now shows us this system works in a real-world setting with younger children.”

The artificial pancreas, also known as closed-loop control, is an “all-in-one” diabetes management system that tracks blood glucose levels using a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and automatically delivers the insulin when needed using an insulin pump. The system replaces reliance on testing by fingerstick or CGM with delivery of insulin by multiple daily injections or a pump controlled by the patient or caregiver.

The study enrolled 101 children between ages 6 and 13 and assigned them to either the experimental group, which used the new artificial pancreas system or to the control group which used a standard CGM and separate insulin pump. Check-ins and data collection were conducted every other week for four months.

Study participants were instructed to continue about their daily lives so that the researchers could best understand how the system works in the typical routines of the children.

The study found that youth using the artificial pancreas system had 7% improvement in keeping blood glucose in range during the daytime, and a 26% improvement in nighttime control compared to the control group. Nighttime control is of particular importance for people with type 1 diabetes, as severe, unchecked hypoglycemia can lead to seizure, coma or even death. The overall time-in-range goal for the artificial pancreas reflected a nearly 11% improvement, which translated to 2.6 more hours per day in range.

“The improvement in blood glucose control in this study was impressive, especially during the overnight hours, letting parents and caregivers sleep better at night knowing their kids are safer,” said protocol chair R. Paul Wadwa, M.D., professor of pediatrics at the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes at the University of Colorado, Aurora (CU). “Artificial pancreas technology can mean fewer times children and their families have to stop everything to take care of their diabetes. Instead, kids can focus on being kids.”

Sixteen adverse events, all classified as minor, occurred in the artificial pancreas group during the study, with most due to problems with the insulin pump equipment. Three events occurred in the control group. No cases of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis occurred during the study.

“For decades, NIDDK has funded research and technology development to create a user-friendly automated device that could ease the constant burden of type 1 diabetes, from the finger sticks and insulin injections, to the insulin dose calculations and constant monitoring while improving diabetes control outcomes and preventing both short- and long-term complications of the disease,” said Arreaza-Rubín.

“The artificial pancreas is a culmination of these years of effort, and it’s exciting to see how this technology may benefit children with type 1 diabetes and their families, and hopefully benefit everyone with diabetes in the future.”

The artificial pancreas technology used in this study, the Control-IQ system, has an insulin pump that is programmed with advanced control algorithms based on a mathematical model using the person’s glucose monitoring information to automatically adjust the insulin dose. This technology was derived from a system originally developed at the University of Virginia (UVA), Charlottesville, with funding support from NIDDK.

This four-month study was part of a series of trials conducted in the International Diabetes Closed-Loop (iDCL) Study. In addition to CU and UVA, study sites included Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California; and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Jaeb Center for Health Research served as the data coordinating center.

Based on data from the iDCL trials, Tandem Diabetes Care has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use of the Control-IQ system in children as young as age six years.

“As we continue to search for a cure for type 1 diabetes, making artificial pancreas technology that is safe and effective, such as the technology used in this study, available to children with type 1 diabetes is a major step in improving the quality of life and disease management in these youth,” said NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers.

The iDCL Study is one of four major research efforts funded by NIDDK through the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes to test and refine advanced artificial pancreas systems. The studies, with additional results forthcoming, are looking at factors including safety, efficacy, user-friendliness, physical and emotional health of participants, and cost.

This study was funded by NIDDK and Tandem Diabetes, Inc. Tandem provided the experimental closed-loop systems used in the trial, system-related supplies including the Dexcom CGM and Roche glucometer, and technical expertise.